History of ESHEP

A Brief History of the European Schools of Physics

The original CERN Schools of Physics had their origin in a decision of the CERN Emulsion Experiments Committee in 1961, when it was agreed to organize a course for both young students and senior physicists engaged in using the emulsion technique in connection with the CERN PS and SC machines. A one-week School was held in 1962 in St. Cergue, Switzerland, at which the main emphasis was on various aspects of the nuclear emulsion technique. The 1963 School also took place at St. Cergue, but this time the emphasis was on physics rather than on techniques.

The year 1964 marked a significant change in the organization of the CERN Schools. Firstly, it was decided to hold the courses outside of Switzerland and, secondly, the programme was extended to cover two weeks, including bubble-chamber as well as emulsion techniques. The 1964 CERN School took place at Herceg-Novi at the invitation of the Yugoslav Federal Nuclear-Energy Commission. By the time of the 1965 School in Bad Kreuznach (Germany) emphasis was placed on teaching theoretical elementary-particle physics to young experimentalists; and it was further decided that the School should rotate among the CERN Member States.

Following discussions between the Directors-General of CERN and of JINR, it was agreed that CERN should organize the 1970 School in collaboration with JINR, in Finland, which at that time was not a Member State of either CERN or of JINR. In 1971, JINR organized a School in Bulgaria in collaboration with CERN, following which it was decided to hold joint Schools every two years. This practice continued up to and including 1991 when the last JINR–CERN School took place in the Crimea, USSR.

With the changes in the political scene in Europe, and after discussions and an exchange of letters in 1991 between the Directors-General of CERN and of JINR, it was agreed that future Schools would be organized jointly every year, and that the title should change to the "European School for High-Energy Physics". In each four-year period, three Schools would take place in a CERN Member State and the fourth in a JINR Member State. In 1992, the last CERN School proper was held in Germany, with a few students from JINR Member States participating. Then in 1993, the first European School took place, most appropriately, in Zakopane, Poland, a country which was a member both of CERN and of JINR.

The new series of Schools has been organized in the following places:
1993 Zakopane, Poland
1994 Sorrento, Italy
1995 Dubna, Russia
1996 Carry-le-Rouet, France
1997 Menstrup, Denmark
1998 St. Andrews, United Kingdom
1999 Casta-Papiernicka, Slovakia
2000 Caramulo, Portugal
2001 Beatenberg, Switzerland
2002 Pylos, Greece
2003 Tsakhkadzor, Armenia
2004 Sant Feliu de Guíxols, Spain
2005 Kitzbuehel, Austria
2006 Aronsborg, Sweden
2007 Trest, Czech Republic
2008 Herbeumont-sur Semois, Belgium
2009 Bautzen, Germany
2010 Raseborg, Finland
2011 Cheile Gradestei, Romania
2012 Anjou, France
2013 Paradfurdo, Hungary
2014 Garderen, the Netherlands
2015 Bansko, Bulgaria
2016 Skeikampen, Norway
2017 Evora, Portugal
2018 Maratea, Italy
2019 Saint Petersburg, Russia 
2020 Israel - cancelled due to COVID-19 pandemic
2022 Jerusalem, Israel
2023 Grenaa, Denmark